A tour of literary Dublin – Zafigo.com, February 18 2019

Flick through the pages of Dublin’s history and you’ll discover that from Ireland’s capital, many literary greats have risen. Wander the winding city streets and check out some of the spots that served as an inspiration or were later inspired by their work. Who knows, you might even get some writing ideas of your own!

Literary landmarks

Most visitors to Dublin find themselves in the grounds of the historic Trinity College at some point, but did you know that several famous Irish authors once walked its paths? Bram Stoker (Dracula), Jonathan Swift (Gulliver’s Travels), Oscar Wilde (The Importance of Being Earnest), and Samuel Beckett (Waiting for Godot) are just some of the university’s famous alumni. Additionally, the Trinity library, particularly The Long Room, is worth a visit for any book fanatic.

On penning his iconic novel, Ulysses, James Joyce said, “I want to give a picture of Dublin so complete that if the city suddenly disappeared from the Earth it could be reconstructed out of my book.” Indeed, the author did draw great inspiration from the city. One iconic landmark is Davy Byrne’s Pub, which was frequented by Joyce himself, and also his Ulysses character Leopold Bloom. You can still visit for a pint and some lunch today.

Away from the city centre on Dublin’s south coast is a Martello tower known as the James Joyce Tower. This beautiful building served as the opening location in Ulysses and is now home to the James Joyce Museum.

The old and ornate St Patrick’s Cathedral is worth a visit for Swift fans. It’s the resting place of the author and also houses an impressive collection of memorabilia.

However, not all literary landmarks are as obvious. Monaghan-born poet Patrick Kavanagh’s Lines Written on A Seat on the Grand Canal was inspired by the city’s Grand Canal. His statue can be found on a bench gazing across the water. Keep an eye out for some of the other literary statues dotted around town.

Wining and dining

There’s nothing like some food and drinks to get those creative juices flowing; and the writers of Dublin past were well aware of this. In addition to the aforementioned Davy Byrne’s Pub, McDaid’s is worth paying a visit. This classic traditional pub was once frequented by many famous writers, including Brendan Behan (Borstal Boy) and Austin Clarke (Pilgrimage). Toners Pub can claim WB Yeats (The Lake Isle of Innisfree) and Bram Stoker as some of its former clients, while The Palace Bar was frequented by Irish journalists for decades.

A Dublin Literary Pub crawl will take you to all of the watering holes frequented by famous writers over a fun-filled afternoon. The stunning and ornate Bewley’s Café on Grafton Street is also a must-visit. Open since 1927, the iconic café has welcomed many authors over the years. Works of Irish writers past and present are brought to life in their regular lunchtime theatre experiences.

Museum hopping

Dublin is brimming with museums, many of which pay tribute to its rich literary history. Your first stop should be the Dublin Writer’s Museum. Situated in a stunning 18th century mansion in Parnell Square, it celebrates the lives and works of Dublin’s most prominent literary figures over the past 300 years. Learn more about WB Yeats, James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw (Pygmalion) and many more by perusing through their books, letters, and other memorabilia. The museum also holds regular exhibitions and lunchtime readings.

The National Library is a must see for Yeats fans as it’s home to an exhibition on the life of the famous poet. Diaries, letters, and photographs are aplenty in this inspiring audio-visual exhibition. While in the library, be sure to climb the ornate staircase and check out the reading room.

If you want to learn more about James Joyce, but don’t have the time to leave the city, the James Joyce Centre also gives a wonderful insight into the life and works of this great author. In addition, if learning about famous authors leaves you craving for books, the Chester Beatty Library and Marshes Library (the oldest public library in Ireland) should certainly be factored in to the itinerary.

Living legends

The flame of Dublin’s literary legacy burns as strong in modern times as ever. Many world-renowned authors, poets, and playwrights once did or still do call the city home, including the late Maeve Binchy (Circle of Friends), Roddy Doyle (The Snapper), Sebastian Barry (A Long Long Way), and John Boyne (The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas). So, for anyone that aspires to follow in their footsteps, there’s always plenty going on around the city.

Head over to the Dublin Writer’s Centre that hosts various talks and courses led by successful writers, all aimed at budding and experienced writers alike. Writers’ groups are also aplenty, and you’re sure to find one to suit you with a quick search on Meetup.

If you fancy picking up a souvenir or simply browsing through a few novels, dedicate a few hours to The Winding Stair bookshop. This beautiful store is brimming with second-hand and new books, with a café to chill in afterwards.

To truly immerse yourself in Dublin’s modern day literary scene, look no further than its festivals. The Dublin Book Festival (November) has it all, from poetry to short story workshops, and everything in between. This year’s events included Notes from the Margins – a discussion on the importance of a plurality of voices in contemporary poetry – some inspirational talks by the country’s emerging authors, literary walking tours, and much more. The Mountains to the Sea Festival (March), the International Literature Festival (May), and the Bloomsday Festival (June) are also worth adding to the calendar.

(First published on Zafigo.com on February 18 2019. Available online at: https://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/a-tour-of-literary-dublin-ireland/)


Planning Your New York City, USA Trip – Zafigo.com, November 14 2018

New York City (NYC) is famously known as ‘The City that Never Sleeps’, and if you try to partake in all the activities and going-ons it has to offer within a week or so, you’re unlikely to sleep either. The opportunities here are endless, so if you’re heading to NYC for a short stint, it’s worth researching and coming up with a game plan. These tips will help you to make the most of your time in the Big Apple:

Travel wise

Tempting as it is to act like they do in the movies, avoid travelling by yellow taxi when getting around NYC. Not only are they expensive, they’re likely to get you stuck in traffic and waste valuable time.

Instead, opt for the subway, which can bring you all around the city and its outskirts quickly and at any time. It’s worth buying an unlimited MetroCard (USD32 for seven days) rather than forking out approximately USD3 for individual journeys. The subway has the added bonus of free entertainment as the carriages and the stations often make the backdrop for buskers like musicians, stand-up acts, and dancers.

Walking is also a fantastic way to explore as it allows you to take in all of the sights and sounds of this diverse city. Though don’t expect to be able to walk around the whole thing – it’s 784 kilometres² after all!

Get some perspective

It’s difficult to get an idea of the sheer size of NYC when you’re standing in Times Square with skyscrapers on all sides. Not until you take a step back (or up) will you be able to truly appreciate it.

Many people choose to gaze down at the world below from the top deck of the Empire State Building, but it’s not the only place to catch a good view. The Top of the Rock observation deck at the Rockefeller Centre and the One World Trade Centre Observatory are other popular choices, while rooftop bars including The Standard and Le Bain are also aplenty.

For skyline shots, take an unmissable sunset stroll along the Brooklyn Bridge or at the elevated park known as the High Line. Both are a photographer’s dream! Taking NYC in from the water with the Statue of Liberty in the background is another magical experience. While there are plenty of boat tours on offer, the Staten Island Ferry is free to travel on and captures the city skyline at its best.

Dress for comfort

With so much to see, you’ll probably only return to your room to sleep and shower, so dressing appropriately is key. Temperatures often plummet in the winter time, so if you’re visiting around Christmas, be sure to pack a good coat and some winter woollies. Summer in the city is hot, so light clothing is best, though rain showers will happen so do pack a raincoat or umbrella. Regardless of the season, the most important item you can bring is comfortable shoes. Subway pass or not, you will be clocking up a lot of steps. Be prepared!

Get out of town

There’s so much more to NYC than Manhattan. Use your time wisely and check out some of the other boroughs such as Brooklyn, Queens, New Jersey, and Staten Island, to name a few. You can even combine your city slicker trip with a beach break as NYC has plenty of sandy shorelines.

When you need a break from city life, there are also plenty of breath-taking hiking trails and state parks within two hours of the city. Check out Minnewaska State Park Reserve or tackle one of the Catskill Mountains in the southeast of New York state.

Save on sights

NYC is known for being expensive to visit, but it doesn’t have to be that way. If you plan to see most of the major attractions, buy a New York Pass, which will give you savings on most of them. There are several free walking tours on offer for those who want local insight into the city, while some museums and attractions are free on certain days of the week.

This site gives a good overview of what sites/activities are free and when. For me, the best thing to do in the Big Apple is explore the streets and laze in the city’s beautiful parks while watching the world go by. Nobody’s going to charge you a dime for that.

For cheap grub, sites like Living Social and restaurants.com always have ongoing deals, while international site mealsharing.com allows tourists to find locals willing to host people for affordable dinners at their homes. Cheap homemade food and some new local friends? It’s a win-win!

Game on

It doesn’t matter if you’re a sports fan or completely clueless to the rules. Attending a sports game is still going to be a fun-filled experience. Visitors between April and October/ November can take advantage of baseball season while winter time sees the kick-off of the American football games. Of course, there are plenty of others sports you can watch, including basketball and soccer. Fixtures for all are easy to find online. With a hotdog in one hand and a humungous beverage in the other, you’re all set!

If you prefer a more casual and free experience, head to the playing fields in Central Park. Fancy having a shot yourself? At Chelsea Piers, you can show off your batting skills in their baseball cages, or have a go at an alternative activity such as rock climbing.

Show time

No visit to NYC is complete without seeing a show on Broadway. There’s literally something for everyone. If you aren’t fussed about planning in advance, do some research on a few shows you want to see, and head along to one of the TDF TKTS Booths on the day. This is where you can avail of a selection of show tickets at a fraction of their regular price.

Here in NYC, top class talent spills far beyond the Broadway stages. Subway stations, Central Park, Times Square, and basically any busy public space are guaranteed to play host to some interesting performers, while the city is also brimming with comedy clubs, jazz and blues bars (like the legendary Blue Note), open mic nights, and smaller gigs.

Enjoy the scenery

The Big Apple isn’t just dazzling lights and towering concrete buildings. Believe it or not, it’s actually home to some beautiful natural spaces, the most obvious one is Central Park. Though an obvious choice to visit, I promise it’s as good as they say. Even those who frequent the park during their trip are bound to find a new corner or interesting sight each time.

Prospect Park, the High Line, Hudson River Park, and Snug Harbor Cultural Center & Botanical Garden on Staten Island are just some of the others on offer. While the complete opposite of green and serene, perching yourself on the steps at Times Square for a while is certainly going to afford you some unique sights too. Enjoy the view and people watch.

Make a meal of it

New York City’s definitely not the place to go on a diet. When it comes to food, if you want something, you can find it. But I suggest you make like a local and grab a slice of pizza from one of the city’s thousands of pizza parlours. There’s plenty of debate online over who makes the best one but I’d argue that most are delicious. If you fancy something more upmarket than a sidewalk slice, head to trendy Roberta’s – a famous bar and pizzeria in Brooklyn for a full pizza and a candlelit drink.

The city’s bagel shops, diner grub, Italian fare in Little Italy, and a refreshing acai bowl are all worth sampling, while a cookie from Levain Bakery has my vote as one of the best baked goods ever. Don’t believe me? Oprah, Neil Patrick Harris, and Taylor Swift are all firm fans.

If you don’t know what you feel like, Greenwich Village has plenty of restaurants and bars to choose from, while the food halls at Chelsea Market and the Plaza will certainly stir up an appetite.

Tip right

It’s not just a rumour; you’re really expected to tip in NYC. While sometimes this is added to your bill, other times you’ll need to figure it out on your own. A general rule of thumb is to tip 15 to 20 per cent of your total bill to taxi drivers, bartenders, and waiters, as well as for room service. You can tip more if you feel the service was exceptional.

The idea of tipping regardless of the service or meal is bizarre to many, but just go with it. Many service industry workers are paid well below the minimum wage, so tipping is the only way for them to make their jobs profitable.

(First published on Zafigo.com on November 14 2018. Available online at: https://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/women-travelling-new-york-city/)

Luggage in limbo – Zafigo.com, October 9 2018

You’ve spent days painstakingly washing clothes, folding everything neatly into your suitcase, and cramming in the essentials, only to arrive at your destination without your luggage in tow. Lost luggage is probably every traveller’s worst nightmare. However, as frustrating as it is to be the last person staring longingly at the luggage carousel, it’s important to not let the upset cloud your thinking. Knowing your passenger rights and responsibilities is key to resolving such a dilemma.

Make it known

Once you’re certain that your luggage is in limbo, the first thing to do is let your airline know at their information desk. You’ll be required to fill out a Property Irregularity Report (PIR), which must be filed before you leave the airport. This will commence the search for your luggage, and as you’ll be assigned a reference number, you can likely follow the report’s progress online.

Make sure to get a copy of the report as well, as this is usually required if you choose to file for compensation. If you’re reading this and have already left the airport without filling out a PIR, don’t despair! Contact the airport and airline as soon as possible to report the problem; but be sure to get written confirmation from them that you’ve done so.

Claim expenses

Under the international Montreal Convention, every passenger is eligible for compensation when a bag is lost, delayed, or damaged, regardless of whether or not they have travel insurance. What an airline will compensate for is usually limited to the cost of bare essentials (such as clothes, underwear, and toiletries) if your bag is delayed, repair costs if your luggage is damaged, and part of the cost of replacing belongings if your bag is declared officially lost after 21 days. How much you’ll receive depends on a number of factors.

When it comes to replacing delayed items, what is considered ‘essential’ is dependent on the airline’s policy, so get clued up on this (note: it’s probably not a new Chanel handbag). While some airlines will give you cash up front, others will ask you to make your purchases to be reimbursed later on. In the case of the latter, check the airline’s individual spending limit and keep receipts for all purchases.

Bad news for those who hate paperwork. The PIR is only intended to help you to trace your bag; a separate form must be filed in order to make a claim. If your bag is declared officially lost after 21 days, file a claim as soon as possible. However, if your bag is missing and later returned, you must write the claim within 21 days of receiving it. In the event your bag did arrive but is damaged, you must file a claim within seven days. A boarding card, receipts, luggage labels, your PIR form, a description of what happened, and photos of any damage will help you to make a claim.

Step it up

It’s impossible to predict how your airline will respond to your complaint or claim. If you’re not satisfied with their response, you are entitled to submit a complaint to your destination country’s aviation commission or airport authority. For instance, if you lost your luggage in Malaysia, you may make a complaint to the Malaysian Aviation Commission (MAVCOM) who will look into the matter further.

Damage control

Losing one’s luggage is never a part of a holiday itinerary. As it’s bound to happen sometimes, preparing for such a scenario can soften the blow if you’re unlucky enough to be affected. First, pack all medication and valuables in your hand luggage. A spare outfit is also a good addition if you’re parted from your travel wardrobe for some time. Take a photo of what’s inside your check-in luggage so that if your bag does go missing, you can check and prove whether its original contents are in it upon its return. If you have travel insurance, check your rights. Some policies will allow you to make a claim, and this may result in a better settlement than one you’d receive from the airline.

Enjoy your trip

While it may not be law, every traveller has the right to enjoy their holiday! Try not to let your luggage dilemma take over your trip. Carry out the necessary steps and then park the problem until you hear more. The situation may be out of your hands, but whether you choose to spend your trip moping around or making memories is completely down to you.

(First published on Zafigo.com on October 9 2018. Also available online at: http://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/luggage-limbo-lost-delayed-damaged/ )

A thrifty guide to visiting Dublin – Zafigo.com, September 12 2018

It’s no secret that a visit to Dublin can make a dent in your bank balance. Ireland’s capital was recently named by Mercer as the most expensive city in the Eurozone in terms of cost of living for expatriates. A separate report by ECA International lists Dublin as the 72nd most expensive city worldwide, beating the likes of Abu Dhabi and London. Yet, this shouldn’t put you off visiting the fun-filled and friendly city. With a bit of planning and some tips from a thrifty Dubliner, an affordable trip can most certainly be achieved.


Be it a hotel or a long-term rental, accommodation in Dublin is notoriously expensive. Hotel room rates are at a record high, with the latest average rate of a standard room at €136.96 (approximately USD159) per night. If you’re visiting Dublin with friends, your best bet is to share the cost of an Airbnb in or near the city centre.

If you aren’t fussed about staying in the city centre, considering planting your roots on the outskirts. Dublin is a small county, so provided you stay somewhere along the bus, Luas (light rail), or DART (train) lines, it’ll be pretty easy to get into the city. Howth and Dun Laoghaire are two beautiful seaside towns within close proximity to Dublin that I recommend. Of course, no matter where you choose to stay, it’s always worth hunting out hotel deals on sites such as Living Social and Groupon. Those willing to give couch-surfing a go will also save themselves some cash.

Long-term visitors will likely struggle to find a cheap pad, owing to a lack of accommodation available to meet the demand. The average monthly rent for a single room in the city is €643 (approximately USD746), and even at that price, rooms are often miniscule and in poor condition. The nightmare that is the search for rentals in Dublin is well-documented, and the best tip I can offer is to start early, long before the college year begins in September.

Keep an eye on university noticeboards and online pages for room shares or consider renting a room in a family home (known as digs) to cut on costs. If commuting is an option, staying in the suburbs or in neighbouring counties such as Wicklow or Meath may save you some stress as well as cash.


The cost of dining out in Dublin varies depending on where and when you choose to grab a bite. Lunchtime offers are aplenty and you’re sure to stumble across them if you simply follow the students. Lolly and Cooks, KC Peaches, Chopped, Boojum Burrito Bars, and any supermarket deli counter are good choices for quality and affordable sandwiches, salads, and wraps. You also can’t beat a good cheese toastie in Peter’s Pub.

Govindas offers massive vegetarian plates for €6.95 (approximately USD8), while Yum Thai Noodle Bar and the Mongolian BBQ do cheap and extremely filling stir fry and noodle dishes for between €6.95 and €10 (approximately USD8-11.60). Luncheonette offers variety at a low cost, with a new menu of healthy dishes under €4 (approximately USD4.60) every few days, while the adorable and affordable Italian café Dolce Sicily is one of my new favourite spots to meet a friend for a hearty bowl of soup, pasta, or Italian pastries.

For dinner, avoid the sky-high prices of touristic centre Temple Bar and check out somewhere around the Dublin 2 area. Some personal favourite choices are grabbing a mouth-watering mezze platter to share at Jerusalem, anything on offer at Café Bliss (which has the added bonus of being BYOB), the €12 (approximately USD14) pizza and a pint on board the Big Blue Bus behind Bernard Shaw (weekdays 5-7pm), and the €5 (approximately USD6) Monday paella deal at Havana.

On weekends, I also love going to the farmer’s market at the seaside town of Dun Laoghaire for some cheap local grub. Try the falafel, it won’t disappoint! Of course, there are always discounts on offer across the city, so keep an eye on the aforementioned deal sites. Another way to save on dining out is to eat a bit earlier; many restaurants in the city offer great early bird deals.

If you’re here for a longer stay, you’re unlikely to be dining out every night. Lidl, Aldi, and Tesco are the best places to do a weekly shop and offer deals on fruit, vegetables, and meat. Though a bit pricier than the supermarkets, farmer’s markets such as those in Temple Bar, Howth, and Dun Laoghaire offer delicious baked goods and organic produce.


Dublin has become awash with trendy cocktail bars, but unfortunately, behind every delectable drink usually lies a €12 (approximately USD14) price tag. If you’re trying to cut costs, pass these places by, along with tourist hotspot Temple Bar which is renowned for its rip-off prices. Diceys, O’Reillys, and The Living Room are known to be student magnets, predominantly because of their affordable drinks and regular deals.

If you prefer a more relaxed environment, try somewhere like The Porterhouse on the weekdays, or hunt out offers in any of the cosy and unassuming pubs in the city’s side streets. When cocktails are on the cards, Capitol Lounge offers them from €5 (approximately USD6), while Sinnotts, 777, and Pygmalion offer two-for-one deals on certain days of the week.

Should you be lucky enough to catch a rare balmy evening in Dublin, head straight to the Pavilion (aka The Pav) at Trinity College. During the summer, this green area welcomes swarms of students, locals, and tourists alike, who can bring their own food and drinks to enjoy on the grass.

Concerts are expensive in Dublin, but many of the pubs offer live music several nights a week for little to nothing. The Bleeding Horse Pub and Whelans are two great choices. Alternatively, wander along Grafton Street for some free entertainment from one of the many buskers and street artists.

If you’re in need of a warm beverage in a chilled environment, head to Accents. This cosy late night café has plenty of comfortable seating, perfect for snuggling up on with a mug of hot chocolate and a brownie.


In the summertime, most of Dublin’s best activities are free of charge. The city is home to several parks, including Stephen’s Green, Iveagh Gardens, and Europe’s largest urban park, Phoenix Park. All are perfect picnic spots while at the latter, you may even get a chance to watch a polo game or meet some of the park’s wild deer.

Just a short DART journey from the city centre is Dun Laoghaire, where you can enjoy relaxing evening walks along the pier at any time of the year. Buying an ice cream cone from famous shop Teddy’s is an absolute must there. North of the city, the cliff walk in Howth is also a wonderful way to spend some time in nature, as are the tranquil National Botanic Gardens.

While not within Dublin, the scenic neighbouring county of Wicklow is also worth a trip if you have time. Spots within it such as Glendalough and the quaint village of Avoca are stunning throughout all four seasons.

Indeed, Ireland is not renowned for having a tropical climate (or anything remotely close), so outdoor activities may be out of the question. Not to worry. The city homes plenty of free museums worthy of visiting, including the Natural History Museum (known as the ‘dead zoo’), the National Museum of Ireland, the National Gallery, the Science Museum, Chester Beatty Library, the Hugh Lane Gallery, parts of Dublin Castle, and much more.

A walk around the grounds of Trinity College is also worth ticking off the list and is completely free. However, if you wish to view the Old Library and Book of Kells as many tourists do, it’ll set you back €11 (approximately USD12.80).

History buffs may wish to check out Kilmainham Gaol Museum, where many of Ireland’s revolutionary leaders were imprisoned and in some cases executed. A tour will provide a good overview of the country’s history and costs just €8 (approximately USD9.30) including museum entry.

From pay-what-you-can yoga classes to free talks and lectures to kilo sales, there’s always something happening in Dublin. Websites such as Eventbrite, Meetup, and Ticketmaster can help you find some of the more unusual events.


Dublin’s city centre is small and walkable, so if you want to save on transport, slip on those trainers and get moving. Cycling is the next best option. Dublin Bikes is a city-wide bike rental service that allows you pick up and drop off your set of wheels at various stations for just a few Euro.

Dublin Bus, the DART Service, and the Luas are the three modes of public transport in Dublin, with lines extending beyond the city centre and into the suburbs and even Wicklow. If you choose to avail of this, purchase a Leap Card in order to get discounted prices and avoid the hassle of fumbling for change for a bus. Unfortunately, Grab and Uber don’t exist in Ireland, but taxis are plentiful. They can be extremely expensive, however, so probably best avoided unless all other options are exhausted.

(First published on Zafigo.com on September 12 2018. Available online at: http://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/thrifty-guide-dublin-ireland/)

Plastic planes, Sunday Business Post – July 22 2018

Recent studies and documentaries have offered a glimpse into the growing expanse of waste sweeping across our oceans. Yet as we gaze into the depths of this issue, we might forget about what lies above.

While more a convenience than a memorable experience for most of us, in-flight dining does leave a lasting mark on the environment. According to statistics from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the average airline passenger generates 1.43 kg of waste. Considering this, and the fact that a record 4.1 billion airline passengers were recorded in 2017, we can estimate that approximately 5.8 million metric tonnes of cabin waste were generated last year. This includes unconsumed food and beverages, plastic utensils, packaging and lavatory waste, among other waste items.

Cabin waste continues to grow annually in line with passenger increases, according to Assistant Director of Environment at IATA, Jon Godson.

“In the absence of any change in regulations, it’s set to double in the next 15 years.”

This 1.43 kg estimate is a ‘very ballpark figure’, according to Godson, who says it was formed through a 2013 airline waste audit at Heathrow Airport. However, owing to the difficulty involved in arranging audits and subsequently, the lack of them, this is one of the few available estimates.


If this estimate is applied to Irish airports, which saw 34.4 million passengers pass through in 2017, 48,000 metric tonnes of waste came off airplanes landing here last year. However, it’s difficult to form anything more than an estimate. A spokesperson for the Department of Agriculture – the body responsible for licencing and inspecting landers, transporters and disposal sites dealing with International Catering Waste (ICW) – says the department ‘does not hold figures on what volume of material is taken from aircraft in Ireland.’

Additionally, Irish airlines will not disclose their cabin waste figures. According to Director of Communications with Aer Lingus Ruth Ranson, the company doesn’t make such data public.

“Aer Lingus is working to ensure greater waste reduction. The introduction of multi-sector bars in 2015 resulted in a 33 per cent reduction in inflight waste,” she adds, saying that an inflight service review to further consider waste reduction has recently commenced.

While Ryanair would also not disclose such data, Head of Communications Robin Kiely cites their recently launched Environmental Policy, which outlines their commitment to become the first airline to eliminate the use of non-recyclable plastics across operations within the next five years.

“We are working with our suppliers to source alternative packaging including cutlery, cups etc., which we will roll out in-flight and at our offices by 2023,” he says. “Our stock ordering system minimises waste by only ordering the stock we will need, and we also carry a large number of ambient products with long shelf lives.”


In light of increasing recognition of the issue of waste, the EU have conjured up some new proposals. For example, the European Commission’s Single-Use Plastic Directive will ban certain single-use plastic products from the market, alongside other measures.However, the introduction of more sustainable waste measures in the aviation industry could be a turbulent battle. Waste reduction measures and plastic alternatives may be introduced but recycling cabin waste is no mean feat. At present, very little cabin waste is recycled.

The reasons why are multi-fold. EU legislation developed to prevent outbreaks of animal disease – which could occur through feeding contaminated food waste to animals – currently dictates how catering waste is treated when it lands on new shores. Under these EU Animal By-Product (ABP) Regulations, waste arriving from outside of the EU is classed as a Category 1 ABP, which is the highest risk category. Incineration, co-incineration or burial in an authorised landfill are the only permitted disposal methods for this waste.

Catering waste transported within the EU is classified as a Category 3 ABP, meaning that it is low-risk and some could potentially be recycled. However, many countries take absolute caution and treat all waste as high-risk. Such is the case in Ireland, as confirmed by the Department of Agriculture following a query from this newspaper.

“Waste from flights outside the EU and inside the EU are treated equally in Ireland as Category 1 ABP as it is not practical to determine the earlier destinations that the plane has been to and verify where food and passengers etc. have originated from.”

The Department currently lists Indaver Waste-to-Energy Facility in Duleek, Co Meath and Covanta Waste-to-Energy in Poolbeg as authorised incinerators for ICW, and Bord Na Mona’s Drehid Waste Management Facility (Kildare), Knockharley Landfill Limited (Meath) and Powerstown Landfill Site (Carlow) as authorised landfill sites. ICW also includes waste landing at Irish ports.


The law isn’t the only hurdle. According to former Irish Air Corps officer and current DCU lecturer in Aviation, Lt Col Kevin Byrne, lack of space on airplanes makes waste separation challenging.

“If we want to recycle, we have to increase the size of the space allocated for it so we can separate different streams of waste on-board the aircraft,” explains Byrne, who also serves as International President of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT).

Time demands, particularly on short-haul flights, also don’t lend themselves well to waste segregation measures, says Byrne, who explains that cabin crew already have a very heavy workload.

“It seems like a small element but it does have a huge effect on the efficiency of an aircraft.”

To introduce segregation measures would also require staff training, according to Odile Le Bolloch of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), who notes that the EPA does not currently work with the aviation industry on waste matters.

“You would need to train cabin crew to segregate the waste and be 100 per cent sure there’s no mixing taking place,” says Le Bolloch, who manages the EPA’s Stop Food Waste programme.

A lack of uniformity between countries could also prove challenging if segregation and recycling was to be universally introduced.

“Not only is there a need for infrastructure on planes, but also in airports. If you’re flying into different airports, each with a different system for waste management, it could make things quite difficult,” says Le Bolloch.


It’s clear that the barriers to reducing and recycling cabin waste are aplenty but according to Byrne, there’s a need for change. Acknowledging that the issue has been ‘neglected for a long time’, he says that the aviation industry should emulate any sustainable changes made by the catering industry on the ground.

“Effectively in a plane, you have a fast-food chain in the sky. It focuses on lightweight things and getting it all out fast,” he says. “Airlines will have to make a special effort and have a portion of the aircraft where waste can be separated. It will mean extra work, effort and redesign but it should be the norm as long as ground-based restaurants do the same thing.”

We could also reduce the amount of waste generated in the first place by using glassware and metal utensils across the cabin, he suggests. While acknowledging this would add weight to the plane, Byrne believes it could be feasible.

 “It’s not sustainable to continue to do what we are doing at the moment.”

However, Godson is not positive this substitution would be any better for the environment.

“If we move from disposable plates and cutlery to rotables, the weight difference is significant. Weight increases fuel burn, if you increase that, you increase CO2. On top of that, we would have to install dishwashers, which would have detergents causing water pollution and increase CO2 through heating water.”

“We are calling for debate with the Commission to discuss what is the best environmental option and see if this [suggestion] is simply a displacement.”

Godson suggests other cabin waste reduction options such as meal selection at check-in, feeding passengers in airport terminals before flying and better passenger profiling to determine what frequent fliers consume.

While acknowledging the importance of EU legislation, Godson says that we should consider trading the highly cautious approach with a risk-based approach that does not compromise animal welfare.

“I think the law trumps everything. We have to respect that,” echoes Le Bolloch. Rather than easing up on the legislation, she suggests the need for clear guidance on low-risk waste segregation. In the UK, this has been done by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, she notes.

Ultimately, Le Bolloch says that change needs to come from within the industry and be supported by other key players.

“We can’t go in and try to do these things without working with industry, as we have no idea of their challenges.”


Elsewhere in the EU, some moves are being made to tackle this issue. For example, between September 2016 and December 2019, the “Zero Cabin Waste” Project will run at Madrid’s Barajas airport. The project, which is led by Iberia and co-financed by the EU through the LIFE Programme, aims to reduce the amount of low-risk cabin waste sent to landfill. This will be achieved by introducing separation trollies, staff training and other supports that make recycling feasible. Once complete, it is hoped that the model will be rolled out in London’s Heathrow Airport and potentially elsewhere.

As the first airport to achieve a Zero Waste to Landfill accreditation from the Carbon Trust, Gatwick Airport is also leading the way. Along with reducing and recycling waste when possible, they opened a £3.8 million waste management plant last year, becoming the first airport worldwide to convert Category 1 airline waste into energy on-site.

With no clear plans to change the way we handle airplane catering waste in Ireland, whether we can significantly reduce our growing waste pile is a question that remains up in the air. Yet, as airlines form plans to reduce the amount of packaging generated in the first place, so too can passengers. Eating in advance, refilling reusable flasks in the terminal before boarding, refusing straws and plastic cups on-board and making special dietary requests known prior to long-haul travel are just some ways to reduce your trash trail. Consumer awareness of waste problems has reached great heights in recent times and perhaps that’s where the real change will commence: from the ground up.

(First published by the Sunday Business Post on July 22 2018. Available online at: https://www.businesspost.ie/magazine/plastic-planes-421313 )

Stopping animal cruelty in its tracks – Zafigo.com, June 6 2018

Aaron Gekoski is an environmental photojournalist from the UK who has spent over a decade documenting human-animal conflict. He has recently garnered much attention for his photography project which highlights animal cruelty at wildlife tourism attractions in Thailand. He spoke with Zafigo about the issues with wildlife tourism, being a responsible tourist, and his own goals.

Why did you choose to document this in Thailand?

This is a worldwide problem. It’s not just Thailand, it’s happening in [the United States of] America, the UK, and other places in the west too. Thailand seems to be the epicentre [of wildlife cruelty] as a lot of animals are kept in captivity in a country that has non-specific laws regarding cruelty. The Prevention of Cruelty Act isn’t specific on how big a holding area should be, what you should feed animals, what constitutes cruelty, and how an animal should be trained.

There are things like orangutan boxing shows daily. The majority of people are laughing at it and don’t seem to notice anything wrong, but they don’t see behind the scenes and how the animal may be trained, for example. Also, in other places, animals may have been taken from the wild and then have to live the rest of their lives in captivity.

What did you witness on your trip in Thailand?

The boxing orangutan shows were very bad. There were elephant rides being offered at Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo, and the elephants were not in a good state. They were skinny, swaying around and didn’t look healthy. Crocodiles there were in poor conditions.

Pata Zoo has four orangutans, a gorilla, and some chimps kept in filthy small cells at this zoo at the top of a shopping mall. They have no stimulation and [live in] an unsuitable environment. At Phuket Safari ECO+, there was a monkey theatre and elephants being made to perform in small rooms. It’s not happening just in Thailand, I really want to stress that.

Are there some places branding themselves as fair and sustainable but not necessarily abiding by these practices?

It’s quite common for places to greenwash. A lot of places dress themselves up as conservation initiatives. They say they’re all about conservation and about reintroduction, but often, they don’t end up doing it. They are money-making schemes working to the detriment of animals. I’m not anti-captivity; there are many zoos doing good things for conservation. I’m anti-cruelty. That’s the goal of this project, to fight cruelty.

Can you name some wildlife tourism operations worthy of support and others to avoid?

In Thailand, Wildlife Friends of Thailand are doing amazing things and have an excellent reputation. Safari World [Bangkok] is the glitziest, the most Disney-fied. What we witnessed was orangutan boxing and a morbidly obese orangutan who sat in a holding area that was much too small, begging for food. It doesn’t fill you with much hope when at the most high-end attraction you witness some of these shows and alarming situations. Phuket Zoo wasn’t great either, and Pata Zoo has had a lot of bad press also.

On the other hand, places like Houston Zoo and London Zoo put a lot of money into conservation. I used to live in London and visit London Zoo. Seeing animals up close inspired me to get into this industry. Most people don’t have access to these animals, so zoos and aquariums are important, but they must be done responsibly. If they can’t be, they shouldn’t be allowed to operate.

Did you have any difficulty getting these shots?

I just paid for tickets and filmed animals as I found them. This is all imagery that’s available and open to the public at any time. Those cage images weren’t behind the scenes, these are conditions animals live in.

I don’t want to speculate, but everything I hear about how these animals are kept and trained is bad. For example, elephants go through something called the crush, which is the most horrific form of animal abuse possible. They are literally beaten; their spirits are broken by handlers and they’re beaten until completely submissive.

What reactions have you had to your project?

I’ve seen the worst sides of humanity, and on the back of this, also seen some of the best. People have been donating; someone’s buying me a new camera and a guy is building me a site for free. The idea is to set up a platform so people can flag certain operations. It’ll be called Raise The Red Flag. People can log on to the website and make a report with photos. Once there are enough reports, we will speak to relevant authorities and try to make as much noise as possible.

Do you have any tips for those when choosing wildlife-related tourism options?

That’s why I’m setting up this platform, because there isn’t enough info out there. In general, if it involves animal shows and performances, there’s a red flag there right away. I don’t think animals should be made to perform for people because the way animals have been treated in order to make them perform is quite worrying. You can always do research on a place you are going to, check whether they have conservation initiatives, look at TripAdvisor and find out where they got the animals from.

(First published on Zafigo.com on June 6 2018. Available online at: http://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/stopping-cruelty-in-its-tracks/ )

How to cut costs now to travel later – Zafigo.com, May 29 2018

Being unable to afford to travel is one of the most common issues you hear from those dreaming of an exotic getaway. True, most of us can’t afford to quit our day jobs for a life on the road, but that doesn’t mean we can’t explore the world. With a bit of budgeting and a few small sacrifices, even those with the lightest of wallets can bring their faraway fantasies to life.

Cut out (expensive) coffee

Buying takeaway coffees isn’t only bad for the environment, it also chips away at your bank balance. With a basic coffee in a café chain costing at least RM10 (approximately USD2.50) in Malaysia, a daily cup of the black stuff will amount to a minimum of RM3650 (approximately USD918) in a single year.

At time of writing, that can score you return flights to New Zealand, with some change to spare! If you still need your coffee – and most of us do – swap trips to coffee chains for a brew at a food court or kopitiam (traditional coffee shop). Better yet, buy a reusable flask and have home-brewed java on the go.

Ditch the gym

Before you use this as an excuse to morph into a couch potato, hear me out. Exercise is a key component of maintaining optimal physical and mental health, so by no means should you give it up entirely. After all, you want to be ready to tackle those holiday hikes right? However, gym memberships can be extremely expensive and by cutting it out in favour of more cost effective forms of exercise, you can rake the bucks back in.

YouTube has a whole host of channels offering free fitness classes, from yoga to Zumba to circuit training and everything in between. Those who tend to drive to their gym will also save on fuel money, toll and parking.

If working out in the great outdoors is more your thing, no problem. Activities such as walking, running and swimming in nature are extremely beneficial forms of exercise. Grab a friend and a bottle of water, and get moving!

Seek out deals

You needn’t put life on hold now just to save for life in the future. Saving certainly involves cutbacks, but you don’t need to sacrifice everything you love and enjoy. It’s all about making smarter choices, not neglecting yourself.

For those who love monthly massages or regular trips to the hairdresser, seek out monthly in-house deals or discounted sessions offered by practicing students. If eating out in good restaurants is what makes you tick, take advantage of early bird deals or share a large main with a friend. Books and clothes can be bought online or at flea markets, which has an added environmental benefit as well as a financial one.

It’s also worth keeping a close eye on sites like Fave, that offers deals on practically everything in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.

Stay in

Staying in is the new going out, didn’t you hear? Perhaps not, but by opting to socialise in somebody’s home rather than at a restaurant or bar, you’ll certainly decrease your weekly spending.

Giving up your thrice-weekly lunch – not to mention coffee, dinner and drink – dates with friends may feel like the ultimate sacrifice now, but you’re certainly not going to regret it when boarding a plane in a few months. So why not tell the gang your intentions and kick-start regular social gatherings at home?

Pot luck dinners are a fun way of enjoying a feast without it costing the earth. The fact that everyone brings a dish means that you’ll always get to try something new and also, that not just one person is slaving away in the kitchen. Coffee dates, cocktail nights, cosy movie evenings and karaoke sessions can also be replicated at home for a fraction of the cost.

Sell online

As the saying goes, one man’s trash is another man’s treasure. Most of us are likely to have some clothes, CDs, sports equipment, electronics, or all of the above gathering dust in our cupboard after years of underuse. A clear-out is always good for your headspace and your wallet.

Organise a car boot sale to sell some of your old items, otherwise, avail of one of the many online platforms allowing you to do so. You won’t earn a fortune, but every little helps. Just try not to be an overly-sentimental hoarder when looking through old things.


Examining exactly what you spend in a month may be a shocking and painful task, but it’s a key part of your savings plan. Determine the amount you require for essentials such as rent, food and transport, add in an allowance for some treats and emergencies to keep you sane and you have your budget. Be strict with yourself and put anything outside of this directly into a separate account to avoid temptation.

(First published on Zafigo.com. Available online at: http://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/how-to-cut-costs-now-to-travel-later/)