The big read: Ireland’s record on climate action is among the worst in the world – and our children are about to protest – Irish Independent, March 9 2019

It’s the first day in March and exactly one year since heavy snowfall buried the country beneath a heavy white blanket. Today’s view is a stark contrast. Sun beats down on those basking in St Stephen’s Green park, many of whom are sporting T-shirts in the unseasonably mild weather.

I sit flicking through a book called The Children’s Fire written by author and environmentalist Mac Macartney, who recently visited Ireland to talk on sustainable leadership and reclaiming the future for the generations to come. In the opening chapters, he describes a concept called The Children’s Fire that was shared with him by some Native American mentors. This refers to an ancient pledge which said that, when governing the people, “no law, no decision, no commitment, no action, nothing of any kind will be permitted to go forth that will harm the children”.

Across the globe, it appears that this fire has been extinguished for a long time. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions through activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, agricultural activities and changes in land use are leading to the warming of our planet, and we are witnessing the effects. Last year’s special report by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that the global temperature rise must be kept below 1.5°C by the end of this century in order to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. According to the report, achieving this would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society.

The threat of climate change is something that today’s youth are acutely aware of and, from the student movement sweeping the globe, it’s clear they’re not willing to stand for inaction. Ireland’s young people are no exception.

The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2019 ranked Ireland’s performance on climate action in response to global warming as the worst in the EU and among one of the worst in the world. The report acknowledged that existing climate mitigation efforts will not enable Ireland to achieve either its EU 2020 or 2030 targets domestically.

Outside the Dáil, dozens of young people of all ages stand together in their school uniforms, waving placards and calling on the Government to reverse this trend.

“We’re out of school to make the world cool,” they cry. The protest is part of the Fridays for Future movement, which has seen young people across the globe miss school on Fridays to protest about climate change inaction. Today marks the 14th consecutive week of the Dublin protests.

One of them is environmentalist and blogger Flossie Donnelly (11), who has garnered much attention for her environmental work in recent times. “I’m here today to show the Government and anyone in the world who thinks that we must be in school and not care about the problem, that we do care,” says Flossie, who organises regular public beach cleans around her hometown of Sandycove, Co Dublin.

“It’s our future that we need to fight for and it’s really important that we all fight on this because if it’s just one of us fighting, nobody will take us seriously.”

Also striking is Peter Reid (12) from Dublin 8, who is supported by many of his classmates from St Catherine’s National School.

“Climate change is a big issue and this seemed like one of the biggest ways that children can get involved,” says Peter.

The strikes are not limited to Dublin alone, with others being held in Cork, Kildare, Limerick, Tipperary and elsewhere in recent weeks. Largely inspired by Swedish student activist Greta Thunberg, Saoi O’Connor (16) from Skibbereen began weekly protests outside Cork’s City Hall in January.

“We want international governments to align themselves with the terms set out for them in the Paris Agreement, we want our world leaders to unite behind the clear scientific truths of climate change and take radical action to limit it to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels on global average before it is too late,” says Saoi when asked about the young protesters’ motivations.

Momentum is building for this Friday, when pupils across the globe will strike in response to the failure of adults to address climate change. Student-led group School Strike 4 Climate (SS4C) Ireland is encouraging students from around the country to get involved, and says that interest is high.

While saying that he has been aware of and interested in the issue of climate change for several years, group representative Theo Cullen-Mouze says it was Greta Thunberg who inspired him to take more radical action.

Manifesto of demands

“I’m someone who has dreams for the future. These dreams cannot be realised if we don’t take action now because the future will only exist if something is done within the next 12 years,” says the Mayo student. “Sometimes you have to stop looking around for someone else to fix problems. You have to start fixing them yourself.”

The group has published a 15-page manifesto of demands online, covering areas such as public awareness and media coverage, EU elections and Government action. In the case of the latter, the group calls for a “combination of aggressive legislation surrounding fossil fuel usage, a Government-backed complete transition to sustainable energy and a very heavy carbon tax”, stressing that climate action must be taken in a way that does not hinder lower-income families.

“We believe that the issue is no longer about targeting individuals and their actions, but about the Government taking hard action on corporations and the real roots of climate change,” Dublin-based member Beth Doherty (15) tells Review.

“The majority of climate change is caused by corporations, and as such we want to see a GND (Green New Deal) as well as tax breaks for corporations with low emissions. Overall, we want the Irish Government to work towards Ireland becoming a leader in climate action,” she says.

Member of the SS4C group Chaya Smyth (14) from Dublin says the movement gives a voice to young people like herself who cannot vote. Theresa Rose Sebastian (15) echoes this view.

“This has given us the steering wheel to try and make change right now instead of waiting for us to get into government in years to come and make the changes,” says the third-year student from Cork. “We want action so that in the years to come, we can still celebrate and enjoy the life on this earth in a way that we don’t have to be continuously looking over our shoulder to see if we can make it to the next day.”

According to the many young activists, there’s a mixed response from schools and teachers to the March 15 strike. Some schools are fully on-board. Many say they have requested permission from principals to get their school involved and await a response. Others say that regardless of school permission, their parents support their involvement in the cause. Some are not seeking permission at all. While adult support may vary, they all share the same determination to take part.

On a global scale, the movement has attracted criticism from some politicians. A statement from UK Prime Minister Theresa May’s spokesperson criticised the thousands of participants of a February 15 school walkout, saying that their action increased the workload for teachers and wasted lesson time. In New South Wales, education minister Rob Stokes warned students in Australia against participating in the strikes.

Greta Thunberg subsequently labelled such statements as something that “belongs in a museum”.

Fight for the future

The Irish participants seem equally unfazed by any such criticism. “We want to be educated. We want to have that future where we can use our education to the full. But if we don’t take action now for climate change, we might not have that opportunity,” says Theresa.

Beth agrees. “The idea of the strike is that there is no point in going to school to memorise facts if the politicians will not listen to these facts,” she says. “If school is preparing us for a future, we should fight in order to maintain that future and not have it destroyed by the reality of climate change.”

Theo says criticism from the politicians is an “arrogant response” from people who don’t understand the problem and who won’t have to live with the consequences.

“Under the UN Declaration of Human Rights, every human being is given the right to peaceful assembly. I think what we are doing qualifies as peaceful assembly,” he says. “We feel that something is inherently wrong with what is happening now and we don’t see other people doing this for us.”

In Fermanagh, 14-year-old blogger, naturalist and conservationist Dara McAnulty has been working tirelessly to raise awareness about environmental issues, particularly the threats to biodiversity. He recently became involved in the climate strike movement and took part in a school strike alone, leaving his classroom to sit outside in “50-mile-an-hour winds”.

“I had been trying out lots of different methods to try and get people to realise all the devastation that was happening around them. I tried my blog, Twitter, doing stuff round my community and then I just thought, well this is going to make them listen, won’t it?” says Dara, whose blog Young Fermanagh Naturalist was runner-up in the BBC Wildlife Magazine Blogger Awards last year.

“I also wanted to make a wave of realism about climate change with other kids because most of us are not educated about this.”

Dara’s passion for the planet has spurred on his involvement in environmental activism.

“At this point, I don’t see myself as separate from nature,” he says.

“I see myself as a part of nature and it’s all a part of me. I’m not exactly going to want to bring hurt to any part of myself.

“What is happening now is this beautiful giant web is starting to crumble and I can’t actually let that happen. I won’t allow myself to let any more of this beautiful web of life crumble away.”

Dara, whose debut book is set for release in 2020, was invited to speak about environmental and youth issues in the UK Parliament this week.

“They were pretty brave and decided to let me in to speak,” he joked several days prior to the meeting.

Decimation of our planet

With the constant barrage of news about the ­decimation of our planet’s biodiversity and a changing climate, it’s no wonder many people feel disempowered.

However, Ireland’s young ­environmental activists hope to empower other young people and show them that they can make a difference.

“Look into what is already going on. If there are younger people doing things, see if you can get involved there,” says SS4C member Tara O’Neill (14) from Galway. “If there isn’t anything going on, try and get some creative ideas going. Participate in strikes, create your own marches, do whatever you can.”

“Take action in any way you can if you want to ensure a future and habitable planet for yourself, your children and every other living thing,” echoes Beth. “Nothing will ever change if it isn’t challenged.”

For young people interested in the climate action movement, Theo says the best first step is to inform yourself.

“Make up your own mind and don’t let anyone tell you what you should think. Do the research for yourself. Don’t listen to those that say climate change is a hoax. They belong in the same box that we put flat-earthers in,” he says.

“After that, if you’re interested in striking, there’s a number of Instagram and Twitter accounts that you can follow.

“These will provide you with information on the climate strike movement, details, times and locations and so on.”

Dara says that everyone can make a difference and while ‘petrified’ that change won’t happen, he remains hopeful. “There’s always a chance. We’re not at the tipping point yet, though it’s coming and it’s very close,” he says.

“The scientists have the answers that we need. We know what we need to do.

“We have the answers to solving this massive problem and it’s just getting the people who can implement these changes to ­actually listen to sense.”

(First published in the Irish Independent on March 9 2019. Available online at: https://www.independent.ie/life/the-big-read-irelands-record-on-climate-action-is-among-the-worst-in-the-world-and-our-children-are-about-to-protest-37890645.html)

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The buzz around pollination – Irish Examiner, March 6 2019

Bees are under threat in Ireland, but a handful of experts are now marshalling an army of volunteers all over the island to protect these miniature wonders, writes Amy Lewis. The next time you consider swatting away a bee, instead pause to appreciate these miniature wonders. These insects, of which Ireland has 99 species, provide a plethora of benefits to humans worldwide.

Most noted is their role as crop pollinators; of the 100 crops that provide 90% of the world’s food supply, 71 are pollinated by bees. Indeed, the honeybee is also responsible for honey production. However, the benefits of bees extend far beyond food, as Dr Úna Fitzpatrick explains.

“Bees also pollinate 78% of the wild plants in the landscape. The countryside would look very different in terms of how attractive the landscape is without them,” explains Dr Fitzpatrick, who is senior ecologist at the National Biodiversity Data Centre and project co-ordinator of the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan.

Those wild plants provide the fruits and seeds for birds and mammals so by protecting pollinators, you’re protecting the whole ecosystem. Without them, a lot of other elements of biodiversity would suffer.

One third of Ireland’s bee species — which includes 77 solitary bees, 21 bumblebees and the honeybee — are currently at risk of extinction. Habitat loss and degradation, starvation due to wildflower decline, disease, poisoning by pesticides and other chemicals, and climate change are pushing them to the brink.

Thankfully, efforts are being made to reverse this decline, particularly through the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan 2015-2020 (AIPP). Initiated by Dr Fitzpatrick and Professor of Botany at Trinity College Jane Stout in light of their parallel research, this plan identifies 81 actions aimed at making Ireland more pollinator-friendly.

“We were researching why the decline was happening, we knew what to do about it. You either bury your head in the sand or try to do something,” explains Dr Fitzpatrick.

What started small is now a plan overseen by a 16-member steering group and supported by 90 governmental and non-governmental organisations, including local councils, businesses, and schools. Last year’s mid-term review states that support has exceeded expectations.

Prof Stout says that they’re “delighted and amazed” with this engagement, noting a variety of reasons for its success.

“When we first put the plan together, we had people sign up to the things that we wanted to do,” explains Prof Stout, who in 2018 was one of nine ecologists worldwide to receive a British Ecological Society award for public engagement for her work on bee decline. “They were already committed and engaged at that early stage.” Timing was also key, according to Dr Fitzpatrick and Prof Stout, who recognise the growing public interest in pollinators.

“It’s also very tangible. People see insects and bees in their gardens. They can also appreciate the link between what bees are doing and the food that’s being produced,” adds Prof Stout.

The fact that involvement is simple and not costly is another attractive factor. Chairperson of Clonmel Tidy Towns Martin Behan is one of the many enthusiastic people on board. The group’s simple efforts to benefit bees in the locality soon developed momentum and drew in the wider community, he says.

Planting pollinator-friendly plants such as crocuses and snowdrops, promoting native flowering trees, creating a wildflower garden and apple orchards, reducing mowing, and swapping spraying for manual weeding are some of the many actions they’ve taken. The community efforts, which involved council staff, local businesses, schools and others, hasn’t gone unnoticed; in September, they won the overall national Tidy Towns Pollinator Award.

“It was a whole town effort, that’s what swung it for us.” Even the youngest members of the Clonmel community have played their part through school involvement. “Kids are so interested. We were delighted. They’re the future environmentalists,”said Mr Behan.

Visitors are alerted to the actions through signage.

“We put it up to make people realise that the grass verges and brambles are left there for wildlife.” Behan adds that they’re trying to move away from the idea that “untidy” landscapes are a bad thing.

Bernadette Guest, the heritage officer with Waterford City and County Council echoes the view that a change of mindset is needed. For example, she notes that dandelions — an extremely important food source for bees — are often removed.

“A key thing for bees is to have a good food supply from spring until autumn,” she says. “People welcome spring daffodils, which have no value for bees, but then go and spray dandelions. We need to change this mind-set and see that the dandelion isn’t the enemy.”

Across Waterford, Ms Guest, her colleagues, and many community members have taken aspects of the AIPP on board. For example, a pollinator plan has been devised for the Waterford Greenway, which includes reduced mowing, avoiding pesticides, planting pollinator-friendly plants, and the installation of bee hotels constructed by local men’s shed groups. Dungarvan town and Waterford Nature Park, Kilbarry, are other standout bee havens.

“Many environmental issues are overwhelming, and you wonder how can I do something?” says Ms Guest. “This is something where, once informed, you can go out and achieve something.”

Ken Norton, PRO of the Federation of Irish Beekeepers Associations, says the plan is helping to educate and spread the message about bees. With a variety of threats contributing to bee decline and still more to learn, addressing the problem is a complex issue, says Professor Neil Rowan from Athlone Institute of Technology (AIT).

“If we all come together, scientists, environmentalists and lay people, collectively we will make a big impact,” says the director of AIT’s Bioscience Research Institute, who is independent from the AIPP implementation. He feels that the plan has so far been successful at bringing people and knowledge together. This is being noted elsewhere, with representatives from abroad reaching out to those behind the AIPP for advice.

One of the primary challenges to the plan is limited resources to meet the interest, particularly human resources.

Implementation is shared between Dr Fitzpatrick — who balances it with her work as senior ecologist — and a project officer position which is operated as a job share.

We’re constantly asked to give talks or training days. We have to say no to about 80% of requests which is a real shame.

The plan is chiefly funded by the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, which funds resource development, while the Heritage Council and Bord Bia co-fund the project officer position.

The threat of climate change is another issue, as a changing climate can lead to a mismatch between the flowering of the plant and the emergence of pollinators. Making the habitat more pollinator-friendly will allow bees to move around the landscape to seek alternative food sources, says Dr Fitzpatrick.

Prof Stout says they hope to get more people involved, and also determine whether their actions are proving effective through bee monitoring. Additionally, the National Biodiversity Data Centre will trial a farmland pollinator project in Kildare, which has secured €1.26m under the Department of Agriculture’s European Innovation Partnership (EIP) programme.

On a wider scale, there’s a great amount of research going on. For example, Prof Stout and colleagues have commenced a research project looking at the exposure of bees to chemicals such as pesticides and their subsequent effects; she will also soon publish a paper on the economic and societal value of pollinators in Ireland.

Meanwhile, Prof Rowan has teamed up with researchers in the University of Minnesota for ground-breaking research investigating technologies that can mitigate complex parasites and viruses affecting bee health.

 

This partnership has led to an Environmental Protection Agency co-funded PhD in AIT which links in with Maynooth University.

“Whether in their garden or their office, the farm or the golf club, everyone can do a little bit and if everybody did a little bit, it could really help,” concludes Prof Stout.

Training workshops for the All-Ireland Bumblebee and Solitary Bee Monitoring Schemes — citizen science projects run through the Centre — will commence in spring. Those who wish to get involved in this or other aspects of the AIPP can visit http://www.pollinators.ie.

(First published in the Irish Examiner on March 6 2019. Available online at: https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/lifestyle/outdoorsandgarden/the-buzz-around-pollination-908920.html)

Why planting trees could be bad for Ireland’s hen harriers – Irish Times, November 15 2018

The twists, tumbles and turns of a hen harrier’s sky dance are a spectacle not everyone has been lucky enough to witness in recent times. Yet while it exists only in poetry or memory for many, for others, the species remains centre-stage.

Undertaken by the Golden Eagle Trust, Irish Raptor Study Group (IRSG) and BirdWatch Ireland on behalf of the National Parks and Wildlife Service, the fourth and most recent National Survey of Breeding Hen Harrier in Ireland in 2015 estimates that 108 to 157 breeding pairs remain. This represents an 8.7 per cent decline in confirmed and possible pairs since 2010.

Survey data, along with other research and the views of relevant sectors, have helped to inform a draft Hen Harrier Threat Response Plan (HHTRP), which aims to outline actions for securing the bird’s future. Prepared by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht in cooperation with three other departments and a stakeholder consultative committee over five years, the draft plan was scheduled for public consultation in October.

However, the IRSG and BirdWatch Ireland – who are on the consultative committee – have expressed concern with the draft in its current form, saying it does not acknowledge scientific research. Chairman of the IRSG Ryan Wilson-Parr says their primary concern is a proposal to consider further afforestation within hen harrier special protection areas (SPAs).

“Habitat loss due to forestry is detrimental to the hen harrier so any further afforestation in protected areas, which already have 52 per cent forestry cover, isn’t going to help the hen harrier at all.”

Hen harriers breed in open, upland habitats including heather moor, bog and scrub. While they can use young conifer plantations for nesting and foraging, as plantations mature and the forest canopy closes, this habitat becomes unsuitable for nesting and hunting. There are also concerns over increased risk of predation for forest-nesting harriers. Forest maturation since SPA designation could explain why there are now more breeding harriers outside SPAs than within them.
‘Appropriate mechanism’
While saying a threat response plan is “an appropriate mechanism to implement effective conservation strategies for hen harrier”, raptor conservation officer with BirdWatch Ireland John Lusby outlines similar concerns about non-native forestry. “In [the draft’s]current form, it leaves the door open for further afforestation and from a conservation point of view, that absolutely cannot happen.”

Both refer to research conducted by UCC, which found that hen harrier breeding success can decrease noticeably when the percentage of second rotation pre-thicket forest in the surrounding landscape is above 10 per cent. Another UCC study concludes that a maximum threshold of 40 per cent total forest cover within the SPA network is required to keep second rotation pre-thicket forest at this level.

Therefore, while forest removal and connecting foraging habitat can be beneficial, Lusby says forestry within SPAs is already too high to consider further planting.

Chair of the HHTRP, Dr Ciaran O’Keeffe of the National Parks and Wildlife Service, says feedback received from all of the players involved in the plan is currently under review.

“What we have to do is work our way through them to do a complete reply to the committee. Where we have things we can do, we will do them,” says O’Keeffe, who underlines the plan must be science-based.

While he says it would be “premature” to comment on individual aspects of the draft version of the plan, O’Keeffe stresses that no submissions will be ignored, whether from landowners or environmental NGOs. However, he does note that the issue is complex and that accommodating everyone’s interests can be difficult.

Indeed, balancing all interests has been a notoriously hard task, as widely highlighted within the agricultural sector.

Since the designation of hen harrier SPAs in 2007, many of the approximately 4,000 farmers with designated land have been outspoken about their grievances. The reallocation of funding originally designated for landowners in Natura 2000 sites, and the later ban on new forestry within these areas, meant that their land was considered worthless.

Shane McAuliffe, who has farmland within the Stack’s to Mullaghareirk Mountains SPA, on the Limerick, Cork and Kerry borders, says farmers like himself have been left with no options. “We have this land and it just sits there, it’s worthless. In the past, I have applied for afforestation grants and it has been declined. We don’t even graze cattle on it, the land is so bad.”

Native forestry
McAuliffe notes the association between non-native forestry and hen harrier decline and says if permitted, he would only consider native forestry.

“I’d love to plant native oak or alder to give a bit of biodiversity to the area,” he says. “We have 20 acres of Sitka spruce on our land and I hate it. You go through it and there’s no wildlife, there’s nothing going underneath the forest canopy, it’s just dead.”

He feels the European Innovation Partnership locally-led Hen Harrier Project may provide hope to both farmers and the hen harrier. While he wasn’t accepted into the first round, he hopes to get into the next.

“What farmers would like to see is that the role that they play in enhancing the environment is properly rewarded,” says Gerry Gunning of the IFA, who’s also hopeful about the new project.

The €25 million pilot project, compatible with GLAS and GLAS + and funded under Ireland’s Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, financially rewards farmers who manage their land in a manner that benefits the hen harrier.

Just under 700 farmers have been offered contracts since it opened in December 2017, with up to 1,200 participants expected by next summer. The project is universally welcomed, though Lusby notes such schemes would provide greater landowner security and conservation benefits if it were long-term.
Discussion around hen harrier conservation isn’t limited to scientists, conservation groups and private landowners. Additionally, habitat change due to afforestation is only one known pressure, alongside agricultural intensification, upland burning, peat extraction, disturbance from wind turbines and illegal persecution, and pressures vary by region.

There’s also still plenty we don’t know. While the focus within SPAs is breeding hen harriers, O’Keeffe and Wilson-Parr both note we need more research on hen harriers in their wintering sites.

Looking ahead and working together is clearly what’s needed to increase hen harrier numbers but whether that’s possible remains up in the air.

Birds in bloom
On a visit to the Slieve Bloom Mountains, it’s quite possible to avoid seeing another being for miles. Forestry extends across the slopes; in fact, it covers 62.8 per cent of the SPA.

Considering what’s known about the hen harrier and forestry, it’s surprising to see in the 2015 survey, National Survey of Breeding Hen Harrier in Ireland, that breeding pairs in this SPA have increased. However, this is likely due to the existence of protected heather moorland habitat, where the majority of pairs have been nesting.

“This SPA has a nature reserve taking up a big part of it so it is managed optimally, whereas in many others, this is not the case,” says O’Keeffe.

Lusby echoes this, saying this SPA should be looked at in isolation.

“In one way, it does show that the population will respond to positive management but it’s not possible to compare like for like.”

(First published in the Irish Times on November 15 2018. Available online at: https://www.irishtimes.com/news/science/why-planting-trees-could-be-bad-for-ireland-s-hen-harriers-1.3694928)

Planning Your New York City, USA Trip – Zafigo.com, November 14 2018

New York City (NYC) is famously known as ‘The City that Never Sleeps’, and if you try to partake in all the activities and going-ons it has to offer within a week or so, you’re unlikely to sleep either. The opportunities here are endless, so if you’re heading to NYC for a short stint, it’s worth researching and coming up with a game plan. These tips will help you to make the most of your time in the Big Apple:

Travel wise

Tempting as it is to act like they do in the movies, avoid travelling by yellow taxi when getting around NYC. Not only are they expensive, they’re likely to get you stuck in traffic and waste valuable time.

Instead, opt for the subway, which can bring you all around the city and its outskirts quickly and at any time. It’s worth buying an unlimited MetroCard (USD32 for seven days) rather than forking out approximately USD3 for individual journeys. The subway has the added bonus of free entertainment as the carriages and the stations often make the backdrop for buskers like musicians, stand-up acts, and dancers.

Walking is also a fantastic way to explore as it allows you to take in all of the sights and sounds of this diverse city. Though don’t expect to be able to walk around the whole thing – it’s 784 kilometres² after all!

Get some perspective

It’s difficult to get an idea of the sheer size of NYC when you’re standing in Times Square with skyscrapers on all sides. Not until you take a step back (or up) will you be able to truly appreciate it.

Many people choose to gaze down at the world below from the top deck of the Empire State Building, but it’s not the only place to catch a good view. The Top of the Rock observation deck at the Rockefeller Centre and the One World Trade Centre Observatory are other popular choices, while rooftop bars including The Standard and Le Bain are also aplenty.

For skyline shots, take an unmissable sunset stroll along the Brooklyn Bridge or at the elevated park known as the High Line. Both are a photographer’s dream! Taking NYC in from the water with the Statue of Liberty in the background is another magical experience. While there are plenty of boat tours on offer, the Staten Island Ferry is free to travel on and captures the city skyline at its best.

Dress for comfort

With so much to see, you’ll probably only return to your room to sleep and shower, so dressing appropriately is key. Temperatures often plummet in the winter time, so if you’re visiting around Christmas, be sure to pack a good coat and some winter woollies. Summer in the city is hot, so light clothing is best, though rain showers will happen so do pack a raincoat or umbrella. Regardless of the season, the most important item you can bring is comfortable shoes. Subway pass or not, you will be clocking up a lot of steps. Be prepared!

Get out of town

There’s so much more to NYC than Manhattan. Use your time wisely and check out some of the other boroughs such as Brooklyn, Queens, New Jersey, and Staten Island, to name a few. You can even combine your city slicker trip with a beach break as NYC has plenty of sandy shorelines.

When you need a break from city life, there are also plenty of breath-taking hiking trails and state parks within two hours of the city. Check out Minnewaska State Park Reserve or tackle one of the Catskill Mountains in the southeast of New York state.

Save on sights

NYC is known for being expensive to visit, but it doesn’t have to be that way. If you plan to see most of the major attractions, buy a New York Pass, which will give you savings on most of them. There are several free walking tours on offer for those who want local insight into the city, while some museums and attractions are free on certain days of the week.

This site gives a good overview of what sites/activities are free and when. For me, the best thing to do in the Big Apple is explore the streets and laze in the city’s beautiful parks while watching the world go by. Nobody’s going to charge you a dime for that.

For cheap grub, sites like Living Social and restaurants.com always have ongoing deals, while international site mealsharing.com allows tourists to find locals willing to host people for affordable dinners at their homes. Cheap homemade food and some new local friends? It’s a win-win!

Game on

It doesn’t matter if you’re a sports fan or completely clueless to the rules. Attending a sports game is still going to be a fun-filled experience. Visitors between April and October/ November can take advantage of baseball season while winter time sees the kick-off of the American football games. Of course, there are plenty of others sports you can watch, including basketball and soccer. Fixtures for all are easy to find online. With a hotdog in one hand and a humungous beverage in the other, you’re all set!

If you prefer a more casual and free experience, head to the playing fields in Central Park. Fancy having a shot yourself? At Chelsea Piers, you can show off your batting skills in their baseball cages, or have a go at an alternative activity such as rock climbing.

Show time

No visit to NYC is complete without seeing a show on Broadway. There’s literally something for everyone. If you aren’t fussed about planning in advance, do some research on a few shows you want to see, and head along to one of the TDF TKTS Booths on the day. This is where you can avail of a selection of show tickets at a fraction of their regular price.

Here in NYC, top class talent spills far beyond the Broadway stages. Subway stations, Central Park, Times Square, and basically any busy public space are guaranteed to play host to some interesting performers, while the city is also brimming with comedy clubs, jazz and blues bars (like the legendary Blue Note), open mic nights, and smaller gigs.

Enjoy the scenery

The Big Apple isn’t just dazzling lights and towering concrete buildings. Believe it or not, it’s actually home to some beautiful natural spaces, the most obvious one is Central Park. Though an obvious choice to visit, I promise it’s as good as they say. Even those who frequent the park during their trip are bound to find a new corner or interesting sight each time.

Prospect Park, the High Line, Hudson River Park, and Snug Harbor Cultural Center & Botanical Garden on Staten Island are just some of the others on offer. While the complete opposite of green and serene, perching yourself on the steps at Times Square for a while is certainly going to afford you some unique sights too. Enjoy the view and people watch.

Make a meal of it

New York City’s definitely not the place to go on a diet. When it comes to food, if you want something, you can find it. But I suggest you make like a local and grab a slice of pizza from one of the city’s thousands of pizza parlours. There’s plenty of debate online over who makes the best one but I’d argue that most are delicious. If you fancy something more upmarket than a sidewalk slice, head to trendy Roberta’s – a famous bar and pizzeria in Brooklyn for a full pizza and a candlelit drink.

The city’s bagel shops, diner grub, Italian fare in Little Italy, and a refreshing acai bowl are all worth sampling, while a cookie from Levain Bakery has my vote as one of the best baked goods ever. Don’t believe me? Oprah, Neil Patrick Harris, and Taylor Swift are all firm fans.

If you don’t know what you feel like, Greenwich Village has plenty of restaurants and bars to choose from, while the food halls at Chelsea Market and the Plaza will certainly stir up an appetite.

Tip right

It’s not just a rumour; you’re really expected to tip in NYC. While sometimes this is added to your bill, other times you’ll need to figure it out on your own. A general rule of thumb is to tip 15 to 20 per cent of your total bill to taxi drivers, bartenders, and waiters, as well as for room service. You can tip more if you feel the service was exceptional.

The idea of tipping regardless of the service or meal is bizarre to many, but just go with it. Many service industry workers are paid well below the minimum wage, so tipping is the only way for them to make their jobs profitable.

(First published on Zafigo.com on November 14 2018. Available online at: https://zafigo.com/stories/zafigo-stories/women-travelling-new-york-city/)

Ireland’s Wildlife Warriors – Sunday Business Post, November 4 2018

Across the country, there’s a network of dedicated individuals who work tirelessly to help some of our most vulnerable neighbours.

Late-night feeds, cuts and scratches and constant goodbyes go hand-in-hand with their largely voluntary roles but neither this, nor juggling tasks with full-time jobs, families or other life responsibilities, deters them from their mission.

Indeed, Ireland’s wildlife rehabilitators are a determined and passionate bunch and this shone through at the recent Irish Wildlife Rehabilitation Conference at Rock Farm in Slane. Organised by Emma Higgs and her team at Wildlife Rehabilitation Ireland (WRI) – an organisation established to promote wildlife rehabilitation and support rehabilitators – the event pulled together carers from Ireland and the UK to share their stories and knowledge.

Those familiar with the insomnia that can accompany human newborns may not entertain the idea of interrupting a good night’s sleep to feed a furry or feathered friend. So what drives wildlife rehabilitators? Bray-based veterinarian Dr Pete Wedderburn, aka “Pete the Vet”, outlined his own motivations in his talk on why it’s worth rescuing wildlife.

“The first reason for me is compassion for the individual creature,” says Wedderburn, who regularly sees wildlife patients at the BrayVet clinic. Concern for endangered species, picking up new skills to help other endangered creatures later on and raising awareness about the environment are some of the other reasons that Wedderburn is willing to treat wildlife. He also feels it helps to promote kindness in our society.

“The message of being kind to animals does eventually change our culture.”

Deciding whether to rehabilitate a sick or injured animal goes far beyond a love for wildlife, as stressed by all rehabilitators throughout the day. With each creature that comes their way, comes an ethical conundrum: should we leave the animal alone, try to heal it or consider euthanasia? Whatever the answer, the welfare of the individual animal and the likelihood of a successful release is key.

This is emphasised by vet Dr Liz Mullineaux in her own speech. She cites a definition of wildlife rehabilitation as the ‘treatment and temporary care of injured, diseased, and displaced indigenous animals, and the subsequent release of healthy animals to appropriate habitats in the wild.’

“Rehabilitation is not about captive animals. You need to keep that at the back of your mind at all times,” says Mullineaux, an experienced vet and Scientific Advisor to Secret World Wildlife Rescue.

There’s a fine line between wildlife rehabilitation and interfering with nature. While well-intentioned, members of the public often pick up animals they perceive to be orphans, unaware that the mother is nearby. Additionally, sometimes a single orphan is abandoned by a mother who is aware that it’s unlikely to survive.

“We should only take an animal from the wild when absolutely necessary,” founder of Secret World Wildlife Rescue Pauline Kidner tells us, adding that we should really only interfere when a casualty is rooted in human rather than natural causes.

For the less-experienced, whether or not to intervene can be a difficult call to make. This is why observing an animal and liaising with those with wildlife knowledge is critical before a creature is moved.

Observing for blood, limb injuries, vision problems or breathing difficulties, as well as noting whether an animal is conscious, are just some of the things that can be noted down according to Mullineaux. These observations also apply to birds, as can fluffed up feathers and poor feather quality.

Not all potential patients are found at the roadside, as outlined in RSPCA Wildlife Veterinary Officer David Couper’s informative talk on seal rehabilitation. Does the seal have injuries; is it struggling to breathe; how alert is it and is the mother nearby are all questions that should be asked. Hydration levels can also be determined, according to Couper, who explains that a healthy seal will have tears flowing down its face when on land.

Deciding whether to rehabilitate an animal yourself or pass it on to others is largely dependent on experience, time commitment and resources at hand. Additionally, rehabilitation of wildlife casualties requires a licence in Ireland. For those who can’t tick these boxes, it’s usually in the animal’s best interest to transfer it to a trained individual or organisation as soon as possible. The Irish Wildlife Matters website contains a list of Ireland’s wildlife-friendly vets and rehabilitators who are happy to advise on safe transportation and take in casualties.

However, having a university degree in a wildlife-related discipline isn’t essential for those who wish to become wildlife rehabilitators. So how can people get involved?

“People who want to get involved have natural empathy for animals anyway. But obviously, the best thing to do is come to a day like today so you can pick up advice and make contact with people who are going to help you,” Kidner tells me. “You’re going to start by deciding what your ethics are going to be. You have to decide whether you believe in euthanasia or not because that is the hardest question you are going to have. And you have to decide how you are going to do it because it can cost a lot of money.”

For those who do want to become a rehabilitator, WRI runs two-day Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation courses throughout the year, explains WRI chairperson Heidi Bedell. Such courses, in addition to the organisations, vets and other trained rehabilitators who donate their time for free, currently form the backbone of wildlife rehabilitation in Ireland.

“In Ireland, we don’t have any location that anyone can bring or send wildlife to for something more serious like surgery or rehabilitation,” Bedell tells me.

This is all set to change. WRI are planning the establishment of a large National Wildlife Rehabilitation and Teaching Hospital. Based at a site in Fingal due to be donated by Fingal County Council following the completion of a feasibility study, it will contain enclosures and pools for animals, a conference space, an educational visitor centre and accommodation for volunteers.

“It will also be a very valuable asset for universities,” explains Bedell. “We would hope to have students coming from universities who are studying some aspect of wildlife rehabilitation or veterinary practice. This could be a place where they can live and have stations where they can study and record wildlife.”

WRI will be seeking various sources of funding for the hospital going forward.

Speaking after the conference, Director of WRI Aideen Magee tells me that such an event is important for spreading the word about wildlife rehabilitation.

“We have everyone at it, from members of the public right up to people who do this as a profession,” says Magee, also a wildlife rehabilitator with Kildare Animal Foundation’s wildlife unit. “The more people we have in the community who are aware of wildlife rehabilitation, what it is and how to get involved, the more animals we can help.”

Attendees at the conference all have their own backgrounds and unique motivations. Kildare Superintendent Martin Walker and his colleague and Wildlife Liaison Officer Garda Sharon McGinty came as they’re often called upon to assist with injured wildlife.

“Deer mortality is a problem, particularly at this time of year because you have the rut on,” says Walker. “Motorists should exercise care, courtesy and common sense.”

Walker also has much experience in tackling wildlife crime. In December, An Garda Síochána will run a training course to equip specially-appointed inspectors from each division with tools to recognise and deal with wildlife crime. These inspectors will work alongside the NPWS.

It’s obvious that becoming a wildlife rehabilitator requires much time and commitment. Yet, final speaker of the day Mary Reynolds gives a simple message that everyone can take on board: look after the land that supports us and our wildlife.

“Rewild and remagic your garden,” says the award-winning gardener and author. “Allow it to become what it wants to become.”

Bedell hopes the key take-home message from the conference is one of kindness.

“Do we want to live in a world where it’s quite ok to see other creatures suffering? I don’t want to live in that kind of world, I don’t want my children to be brought up in that world,” she tells me. “I would like to promote that idea that it’s good to make that effort. Do stop, do get out, do help that animal that’s injured. It’s kind and that’s the world that we want to go into.”

TAKING ACTION

Director of WRI and wildlife rehabilitator with Kildare Animal Foundation’s wildlife unit Aideen Magee has a wealth of experience in dealing with wildlife casualties, from rescuing injured otters to nursing baby birds in her box room at home. For members of the public, who might be uncertain what to do if they find an injured or ill animal, she recommends taking the following steps.

“The very first thing is to ensure your own personal safety because if you end up becoming a casualty yourself, you’re no good to yourself or the animal either. Look at the context that you find the animal in. If it’s on the side of a motorway, always make sure it’s safe to stop and intervene,” she says.

“The next thing to do is to observe the animal for a while and see does it actually need intervention or not,” she continues, adding that sometimes seemingly abnormal behaviour is completely natural. “Particularly if they are in an area in which they are more habituated to people, they might not have the fight or flight response.”

If in any doubt whatsoever, she advises visiting the Irish Wildlife Matters website, finding your nearest wildlife-friendly vet or rehabilitator and contacting them for advice. When it’s something straightforward, they could guide you through how to safely handle that animal and transport it to the nearest expert. Otherwise, they might send out an experienced volunteer to assess and assist with the situation.

“If you’re a member of the public and haven’t handled these animals before, never try to do so on your own without getting expert guidance first,” says Magee. “If you don’t have somebody near you on that list, just look up your local vet. They may have contact numbers of somebody else who can offer guidance and assistance.”

(First published in the Sunday Business Post on November 4 2018. Available online at: https://www.businesspost.ie/magazine/irelands-wildlife-warriors-429332)

Curlew task force is on a mission to restore threatened wader bird – Irish Examiner, November 1 2018

The evocative cry of the curlew is a memory of summers past for many in rural Ireland.

Unfortunately, Ireland’s breeding curlew population has plummeted by 96% since the 1980s, so this memory isn’t shared by younger generations.

Loss and fragmentation of its habitats are the main reason why this ground-nesting bird is now on the IUCN red list of threatened species.

These reasons were in turn driven by factors such as drainage and restriction of bogland, agricultural intensification, unmanaged upland burning, land abandonment and afforestation.

Such habitat changes increased vulnerability to predation, further diminishing numbers. Fewer than 150 breeding curlew pairs remain.

That may surprise those who have seen curlew flocks in recent months. However, these are likely to be migrants arriving from Scotland and Scandanavia, from July until the spring. Breeding pairs, on the other hand, can be spotted in April, May and June and are identified by their distinctive bubbling call and circular display flight.

Surveys by BirdWatch Ireland and the National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS) in 2011 and 2015/2016, plus many calls for action, underpinned the decision by Minister Heather Humphreys to establish a curlew task force in 2017. This task force brings together stakeholders to make decisions aimed at saving the curlew. Established separately but running in parallel is the NPWS Curlew Conservation Programme, focused on monitoring and improving habitats in seven key sites for breeding curlew.

This year’s cold winter and summer drought were particularly difficult for curlews.

 

In monitored sites, 19 chicks were confirmed to have fledged in 45 territories, in 2018. While this may appear low, Barry O’Donoghue, who manages the Curlew Conservation Programme, says it’s “within the range for maintaining a stable population” and an improvement on the first year’s results.

“Compared to projects in the UK with similar numbers of territories, they had zero chicks produced, so we are hopeful that we have begun to see a turnaround in fortunes for the curlew,” he says.

“It won’t be easy, but we have made a good start and in some areas we have actually seen an increase in breeding numbers.”

Independent curlew task force chair Alan Lauder also notes an improvement on previous years, saying we should monitor what is happening at the most successful sites and learn from them.

He says, as monitored sites don’t contain the whole population of breeding curlew in Ireland, there were potentially more chicks elsewhere.

Senior conservation officer with BirdWatch Ireland Anita Donaghy says the results are “mildly encouraging” but echoes the sentiment that we have a long way to go.

“Farmers are the number one land managers when it comes to curlew in Ireland,” says O’Donoghue.

Indeed, farmers have been heavily involved in curlew conservation, in the many agri-environment schemes and in task force discussions.

For example, farmers with curlew in their area were prioritised for entry into GLAS, and the opportunity to get €5,000 annually for avoiding damaging activities and promoting suitable habitat.

The Curlew Conservation Programme has established curlew action teams, with advisers, curlew champions, and nest protection officers, in each monitored area.

Comprising people from various backgrounds, these teams work with the community and landowners to monitor sites and improve habitats.

Co-operation Across Borders for Biodiversity (CABB) was launched in December to improve breeding habitats for curlew and other species.

Supported by the EU, the €4.9m project aims to restore 2,228 hectares of blanket bog in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

“As part of this, BirdWatch Ireland is implementing a small number of management agreements directly with farmers who have breeding waders, including curlew, on their lands,” says Donaghy.

“We provide advice, pay them for basic habitat measures and have the facility to pay for capital works programmes.”

June 2018 saw the completion of the Results Based Agri-environment Pilot Scheme (RBAPS) in Leitrim and the Shannon Callows. Predominantly funded by the EU, it rewarded participating farmers for biodiversity measures on their land.

Looking ahead, a three-year Irish curlew breeding European Innovation Partnership trial (EIP) will soon commence in southern Lough Corrib and south Leitrim.

Overseen by BirdWatch Ireland, the Irish Natura and Hill Farmers Association (INHFA), Irish Grey Partridge Trust,and Teagasc, it will focus on training and assisting farmers in predator control, says INHFA vice president and EIP operational group member Henry O’Donnell, a cattle and sheep farmer in Co Donegal’s Inishowen Peninsula.

“This is going to be a source of income for farmers and will supplement their conventional agriculture.”

Longer-term schemes would be extremely beneficial going forward, says Lauder.

“Curlew have large territories and often move big distances between farms,” he says. “It would be encouraging to have a scheme promoting a level of integration between neighbouring farmers.”

Agri-environment schemes are praised by O’Donnell, but he hopes other factors don’t override their success.

One of his concerns is the push for agricultural intensification, which he says is driven by Teagasc’s farm advisory services, Harvest 2020, and “other objectives not in keeping with sustainable agriculture”.

“Farmers should be advised that if you kept less animals in a less intensive situation, it would be better for conservation, better for your bank account and more sustainable for the environment.”

“The basis for environmental schemes and protection of endangered birds is to provide a suitable habitat and try to increase their numbers.

“That ignores the reality of things like predators, and the fact that blanket afforestation with conifers has provided an ideal habitat for predators.

“That is as much an issue in the decline of the bird species that we are concerned with as is producing a suitable environment for them.”

For Donaghy, agri-environment schemes like GLAS need to employ ecologists giving specialist advice to farmers, something she says proved very beneficial in RBAPS.

“That’s really going to improve results on the ground in terms of better habitats and better nesting conditions.”

While glad to see the curlew issue addressed by the Government, she’s equally “dismayed” that calls for action were responded to so late, saying that the curlew’s situation would be better if action had been taken “even five years ago”.

However, Donaghy is “cautiously hopeful” that efforts from all sectors can improve the bird’s prospects, and says, we “must not give up”.

Working with Nature

The Curlew Conservation Programme focuses on seven key areas for breeding curlew: Lough Ree, Lough Corrib, Stacks Mountains, north Roscommon, Leitrim, Monaghan and Donegal. Pat Devaney, who farms along the shores of Lough Ree in Roscommon, is one of the many participants. Through his involvement, he worked alongside NPWS ecologists to carry out habitat improvement measures on his land; these including clearing shrub to create open habitat for breeding curlew and erecting a predator-proof fence.

“I have been aware for some time of how sensitive the area where I farm is to the wading birdlife such as the curlew, geese and lapwing,” says Devaney, who farms suckler cows, sheep and ponies on his farm based in the townlands of Cloonmore, Clooneskert and Rinanny. “It’s an SAC area and I participate in GLAS which is a great scheme. When approached by the NPWS to restore the area to its former glory and the natural habitat for these birds, local farmers and the NPWS have cooperated very well, each realising the important role we both have in ensuring that farming and wildlife can co-exist in harmony. I was delighted to take part.”

(First published in the Irish Examiner on November 1 2018. Available online at: https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/farming/curlew-task-force-is-on-a-mission-to-restore-threatened-wader-bird-882531.html)

Ireland’s battle to save our wildlife – Irish Examiner, September 3 2018

Amy Lewis highlights the measures taken in tackling crimes against Ireland’s wildlife and the need for more action.

Protecting the voiceless victims of wildlife crime is a constant battle.

The ongoing persecution of wildlife overseas is often highlighted but such incidences aren’t as far away from home as one might imagine. In fact, the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and Gardaí face them each week.

In July, two men were charged before Portlaoise District Court for the trapping of protected wild goldfinches using bait and rat glue.

Meanwhile, an investigation is underway in Louth regarding the unlawful killing of two peregrine falcons nesting in the Cooley Mountains.

However, these and other known cases are only the tip of the iceberg.

“Many cases go undiscovered because by their nature, they’re suspicious and secretive activities,” says Dr Barry O’ Donoghue from the NPWS Agri-Ecology Unit.

The stakes are being raised to combat wildlife criminals and their increasingly sophisticated methods.

An Garda Síochána recently announced plans for a wildlife crime training course. Commencing in September, it will equip specially-appointed inspectors from each Garda division with tools to recognise and deal with wildlife crime.

Each inspector will work closely with their opposite number in the NPWS.

“Information is key. We want to show [inspectors] what the main offences are and demonstrate how to deal with them and prosecute them in the District Court,” says Kildare Superintendent Martin Walker, who previously led the Garda’s anti-poaching investigation Operation Bambi alongside the NPWS.

Although the Wildlife Act is the principal legislation regarding wildlife crime, Supt Walker says prosecution powers within it are limited.

Through training, he hopes to encourage Gardaí to ‘think laterally’ about other legislation that relates to these cases.

A surreptitious nature is a common denominator among wildlife crimes but offences take many forms.

According to Supt Walker, the illegal hunting of deer at night using lamps or lurchers is common.

Indeed, the Irish Deer Commission recently reported a significant increase in deer poaching and badger baiting in the Midlands.

“That’s particularly cruel. These animals release stress hormones and the meat isn’t even fit for human consumption. It’s just an absolute bloodlust,” says Supt Walker.

Catching finches is widespread, as is hare poaching with hounds.

“People are hunting hares across farmer’s land. They’ve no authority to be there, farmers are afraid and sometimes their livestock is getting injured,” says Supt Walker, who says that poachers often use hunts as intelligence-gathering operations for farm theft.

Birds of prey are also regular targets. The RAPTOR (Recording and Addressing Persecution and Threats to Our Raptors) protocol is a collaborative approach between the NPWS, Regional Veterinary Laboratories and the State Laboratory to determine non-habitat related threats to birds of prey.

“We needed a mechanism of investigating and recording incidents, as well as using that data to inform and provide intelligence for addressing these issues,” says O’ Donoghue, who is a Project Investigator for RAPTOR.

The sixth and most recently published report showed that in 2016, there were 19 poisonings, six shootings and one incident involving a vehicle collision.

Common buzzards, red kites and peregrine falcons were the most highly-recorded victims.

Niall Hatch of Birdwatch Ireland notes that peregrines are common targets.

While he says some crimes have been at the hand of pigeon-fanciers, he stresses that most people involved in this hobby wouldn’t harm peregrines in any way.

Project Manager of the White-tailed Sea Eagle Reintroduction Project Dr Allan Mee adds that peregrine chicks are sometimes taken from the wild by those without a licence.

“Buzzards are [also] being targeted because some see them as a threat to pheasants being released. Buzzards aren’t well-regarded by some gun clubs in parts of the country,” continues Mee, stressing that generally, his team have a good relationship with gun clubs.

“Buzzards were almost extinct in Ireland but now have spread across the country. There’s no earthly reason for anyone to persecute them,” adds Hatch.

People are sometimes worried that they’re a threat to lambs but they couldn’t kill a lamb in a million years. They’re nothing but a benefit to a farm as they kill rats and rabbits.

The RAPTOR report notes that some poisoning incidents, particularly those involving buzzards, red kites and barn owls are the result of bio-accumulation i.e. birds ingesting rodents that have been poisoned with rodenticides.

These cases are considered secondary and unintentional.

Through spreading awareness, Mee has seen that this can be mitigated.

Of 14 confirmed poisoning cases of white-tailed sea eagles, since their reintroduction from Norway commenced in 2007, Mee says not one has taken place since 2015.

He credits this to awareness, education and working with landowners.

“In the past when they were poisoned, it was largely because people weren’t aware that the birds were out there or of a change in their population.”

Some other poisoning incidents are more sinister, such the illegal placing of poisoned meat baits.

According to O’ Donoghue, some have been laced with enough poison to kill a human if touched and accidentally ingested.

To tackle these crimes, it’s universally agreed that more education and public awareness is key.

“We must engage with local communities so that they have someone they know and trust they can report something to,” says O’ Donoghue.

The 2013 and 2015 Wildlife Crime Conferences organised by Wildlife Rehabilitation Ireland have helped to spread awareness.

The organisation, who run the information website Wildlifecrime.ie, will hold a public Wildlife Rehabilitation Conference in Slane this October which includes talks on wildlife crime.

Additionally, Hatch says that more resources could help.

“The NPWS needs to be much better resourced. They’re doing great work but are struggling because they don’t have the resources they need and deserve.”

Supt Walker hopes that with the upcoming training, potential plans for a wildlife crime recording system and liaising with various stakeholders, wildlife crime nationwide will be minimised.

This can be aided with the cooperation of the public.

If aware of a suspected wildlife crime, they should report it to the Gardaí and local NPWS ranger.

Supt Walker stresses that anyone who reports will have their anonymity fully respected.

(First published by the Irish Examiner on September 3 2018. Available online at: https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/lifestyle/features/irelands-battle-to-save-our-wildlife-866228.html)